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Benvenuti in queste pagine dedicate a scienza ed arte. Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

Thursday, June 30, 2011

Plant a New Language in Your Garden

"A world memory champion and a neuroscientist have joined forces to create a language-learning website called Memrise, which combines mnemonic tricks with a game to help users learn quickly and efficiently. Its carefully paced learning structure and competitive points system, the app's developers believe, make their site more effective than other language-learning tools. Memrise makes learning a game with virtual gardens that users must tend. As they do, they also earn points and thereby fight their way up a community-wide leaderboard."
Plant a New Language in Your Mind - Technology Review

Who and where

Who and where: Current and Recent Foreign Missions in Egypt http://www.sca-egypt.org/eng/FMR_CURRENT-MISSIONS_MP.htm
"The principal mission of the Ministry of State for Antiquities, previously known as the Supreme Council of Antiquities, is to protect and promote the cultural heritage of Egypt, both independently and in cooperation with national and international organizations. To achieve its goals, it formulates and implements all policies concerned with antiquities; issues guidelines and permits for the excavation, restoration, conservation, documentation, and study of sites and monuments; and manages a country-wide system of antiquities museums."

Enborne crop circle

From Google Maps.

"A SHARP-eyed Newbury resident spotted this strange formation off the Enborne Road in Newbury while studying computer satellite images. Construction manager Rob Fox, of St John’s Road, was looking for an alternative route to work using on-line aerial maps when he spotted what appeared to be a crop circle outline in ploughed earth."
http://www.newburytoday.co.uk/News/Article.aspx?articleID=10089

Being a red blood cell

"Nanoparticles disguised as red blood cells could be used to deliver anti-cancer drugs directly to a tumour. So say researchers at the University of California at San Diego, whose new technique is unique in its approach to harnessing nanoparticles."
Nanoparticles play at being red blood cells - physicsworld.com

Aircrafts make clouds rain

"For more than 50 years it has been known that aircraft can punch large holes or carve out canals inside clouds as they pass through them – but no-one had been able to explain exactly why this happens. Now researchers in the US have identified the cause by comparing satellite images of clouds with the results of computer modelling. They say that the phenomenon could lead to extra precipitation in the vicinity of major airports."
Aircraft punch holes in clouds and make it rain - physicsworld.com

Dakhla Oasis

A French excavation team made several discoveries in Balat village in the Dakhla Oasis, around 500 km south of Cairo. More at http://www.archaeogate.org/egittologia/article/1427/1/recenti-scoperte-archeologiche-nelloasi-di-dakhla.html
http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/470508 and also
An ancient Egyptian federation

An ancient Egyptian federation

E il faraone inventò lo Stato federale, by Aristide Malnati
"Il federalismo ha avuto la prima manifestazione storica nell’Antico Egitto. ... è la conclusione dell’analisi degli elementi archeologici e storici, emersi in 30 anni di scavo sistematico sul sito di Balat, capoluogo dell’Oasi di Dakhla (200 Km a Ovest dell’odierna Luxor) durante il regno dei sovrani della VI Dinastia (2300-2200 a. C.); scavo condotto dall’archeologo francese Georges Soukiassian alla testa di un’équipe internazionale." Balat  è il più antico abitato egizio giunto fino a noi. "A Balat sono state rinvenute imponenti vestigia di quello che fu il fulcro del potere della regione più ricca d’Egitto, in particolare (ma non solo) durante la VI Dinastia. Qui risiedevano e facevano il bello e cattivo tempo i Governatori di tutta l’Oasi ... Godevano di forte autonomia e di reale possibilità di incidere anche in decisioni di politica nazionale. ... Se passiamo poi alla necropoli per l’eterno riposo dei, diremmo oggi, Presidenti della regione, il quadro della venerazione, in cui erano tenuti, si completa: ognuno fu sepolto in una mastaba, un’imponente sepoltura a sviluppo sotterraneo (quasi una piramide rovesciata), che sfociava nella camera funeraria superbamente affrescata con scene".
More
http://www.avvenire.it/Cultura/faraone_201106301208149670000.htm

As reported by Aristide Malnati, federalism had been developed for the first time in the ancient Egypt. This is a conclusion after analysis of archaeological and historical elements, lasted for 30 years during the systematic excavations on the site of Balat, Dakhla Oasis (200 km due west of Luxor). The period was that of the Sixth Dynasty (2300-2200 BC). The excavation is lead by the French archaeologist Georges Soukiassian.
Balat is considered the oldest Egyptian village. It was the most powerful center in one of the richest regions in Egypt, particularly during the Sixth Dynasty. Here lived the Governors of Oasis, having wide autonomy from the king and a real possibility to influence the decisions of the national policy.

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

New Pharaonic artefacts discovered in North Egypt - Ahram Online

"New Pharaonic artefacts discovered in North Egypt's site of San El-Hagar
A collection of painted blocks used in the construction of king Osorkon II’s temple have been unearthed in San El-Hagar in the Delta city of Sharqia"
New Pharaonic artefacts discovered in North Egypt's site of San El-Hagar - Ancient Egypt - Heritage - Ahram Online

Monday, June 27, 2011

A "Mobius" graphene

"In 1858, August Mobius dreamt up a shape with a single surface and only one edge. The Mobius strip has fascinated children and scientists alike since then.
How small can these shapes be? In December 2003, German chemists made a molecular Mobius strip out of a benzene-like ring modified with a belt-like carbon structure. Since then, various groups have produced increasingly bizarre Mobius-type molecules, including one that can switch back and forth from a Mobius to an ordinary strip when zapped with light.
Of course, the obvious choice of material with which to make Mobius molecules is graphene. But this particular trick has eluded chemists, an omission that clearly irks. Now Douglas Galvao from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas in Sao Paolo, Brazil, and buddies have decided to grip the bull by the horns and calculated the properties that Mobius carbon might have."New form of "Mobius" carbon predicted - Technology Review

Farewell Lieutenant Columbo

"Peter Michael Falk (September 16, 1927 – June 23, 2011) was an American actor, best known for his role as Lieutenant Columbo in the television series Columbo. He appeared in numerous films and television guest roles and was nominated for an Academy Award twice (for 1960's Murder, Inc. and 1961's Pocketful of Miracles), and won the Emmy Award on five occasions (four for Columbo) and the Golden Globe award once. Director William Friedkin, when discussing Falk's role in his 1978 film The Brink's Job said that "Peter has a great range from comedy to drama. He could break your heart or he could make you laugh.""


Friday, June 24, 2011

Hot quarks break free

"Physicists in the US, India and China have calculated that quarks and gluons can break free from their confinement inside protons and neutrons at a temperature of around two trillion degrees Kelvin – the temperature of the universe a fraction of a second after the Big Bang. The researchers arrived at this figure by combining the results of supercomputer calculations and heavy-ion collision experiments. They say that it puts our knowledge of quark matter on a firmer footing."

Quarks break free at two trillion degrees - physicsworld.com

Wrinklons

"A new quasiparticle called the "wrinklon" could help explain why materials as diverse as graphene and household curtains wrinkle in much the same way – despite their very different length scales. The particle has been introduced by researchers in Belgium, France and the US as a result of measurements on a wide range of materials on length scales from micrometres to metres. While the work may not lead to more attractive curtains, wrinkles do turn out to affect the electronic properties of graphene and the analysis could therefore influence the development of graphene-based devices."

Introducing the 'wrinklon' - physicsworld.com

Voyager mission at the edge of the solar system

"Recent data from the spacecraft have shown a gentle decrease in the velocity of the solar wind at the heliopause – the outer boundary of the heliosheath – not the abrupt discontinuity predicted by current theories. Also, scientists looking at other data from both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have found that the magnetic field in the heliosheath is a tumultuous foam of magnetic bubbles, as compared to the graceful arcs of magnetic field lines they had expected."

More surprises for the Voyager mission at the edge of the solar system - physicsworld.com

Thursday, June 23, 2011

Khufu’s second solar boat revealed

"Today, hundreds of foreign and Egyptian journalists along with photographers, cameramen and TV presenters flocked to the Giza Plateau, where Minister of State for Antiquities Zahi Hawass, Chargé d’Affaires at the Japanese Embassy to Egypt Masami Kinefuchi, and the chief executive representative of the Nitori Holding Company, Akio Nitori, unveiled King Khufu’s second solar boat. This boat was first discovered in 1954 by Egyptian architect and archaeologist Kamal El-Malakh with fellow archaeologist Zaki Nour during routine cleaning at the southern side of Khufu’s Great Pyramid. The first pit was found under a roof of 41 limestone slabs. Removing one of these slabs, a cedar boat, completely dismantled but arranged in the semblance of its finished form, was found along with layers of mats, ropes, instruments made of flint and some small pieces of white plaster with 12 oars, 58 poles, three cylindrical columns and five doors."

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Documentos de Antonio Raimondi serán restaurados y digitalizados

"Se recuperarán libretas, acuarelas, planos y láminas hechas por el sabio.
Gracias al convenio firmado entre el Archivo General de la Nación (AGN) y la Asociación Educacional ‘Antonio Raimondi’ será posible restaurar y digitalizar la colección del sabio italiano, que data de los años 1852 a 1869, anunció el ministro de Cultura, Dr. Juan Ossio Acuña. "
Documentos de Antonio Raimondi serán restaurados y digitalizados

Thursday, June 16, 2011

Peer pressure keeps planets young...

"Two US astrophysicists claim they have answered an important question about how planets form: why don't young planets get pushed into their companion stars before they have a chance to grow? It turns out that a little company is enough to keep them there, say the researchers, who argue that multiple planets moving through a rocky disk can prevent one another from falling into the star."
Peer pressure keeps young planets growing - physicsworld.com

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

On sunspots and solar flux

Recurrence plots of sunspots, solar flux and irradiance
by AC Sparavigna
The paper shows the recurrence and cross recurrence plots of three time series, concerning data of the solar activity. The data are the sunspot number and the values of solar radio flux at 10.7 cm and of solar total irradiance, which are known as highly correlated. To compare the series, the radio flux and irradiance values are monthly averaged. Recurrence plots display the oscillating behaviour with remarkable features. Moreover, cross recurrence plots help in identifying time lags between the sunspot number maximum and the maximum of radio or irradiance signals, in circumstances where the data values are highly dispersed. Image processing is useful too, in enhancing the monitoring. An interesting behaviour is displayed by cross recurrence plots of irradiance, which are not symmetric with respect to the line of identity.

Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash

Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 38, L11802, 4 PP., 2011
doi:10.1029/2011GL047298
by  P. Kumar T. L. Lathem A. Nenes J. Dufek I. N. Sokolik M. Trail A. Russell
Volcanic ash is hygroscopic
Water vapor adsorption is the main proceess controlling ash hygroscopicity
The results can be parameterized in a simple correlation for use in models
"Limited observational data exists on the physical interactions between volcanic ash particles and water vapor; yet it is thought that these interactions can strongly impact the microphysical evolution of ash, with implications for its atmospheric lifetime and transport, as well as formation of water and ice clouds. ...The hygroscopicity of the ash particles is quantified by their ability to uptake water and nucleate into cloud drops under controlled levels of water vapor supersaturation. Evidence presented strongly suggests that ash uptakes water efficiently via adsorption and a simple parameterization of ash hygroscopicity is developed for use in ash plume and atmospheric models."

Shrinking atmospheric layer linked to low levels of solar radiation

Changes in the solar energy output may cause the outer atmosphere to contract.
Researches are also showing that solar cycling has differences in the minimum values.
Shrinking atmospheric layer linked to low levels of solar radiation

Snake near the lake

Image from Google Maps: a geoglyph near the Titicaca Lake, Peru.
This image shows a plain area covered by a network of waru-warus, that is, of the "raised fields" - earthworks separated by canals - near the Titicaca Lake. This is an ancient agricultural technique used by Andean people starting from the first millennium BC. Note that the structure of the network is created after a careful planning. Each raised field is approximately 10 meters large and more than one hundred long. 


It seems a snake, the pond as its eye and a forked tongue. More on waru-warus: arXiv:1009.4602 [pdf] Geoglyphs of Titicaca as an ancient example of graphic design, Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, and arXiv:1009.2231 [pdf] Symbolic landforms created by ancient earthworks near Lake Titicaca, Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

Efimov states

"Tractable three-body problems are rare, which is why Vitaly Efimov’s study in 1970 proposing that bound states could exist between three interacting bosons was so intriguing. It took more than3 0 years, though, to observe Efimov states in an ultracold gas of cesium atoms, in which interactions could be controlled with a magnetic field. Now, writing in Physical Review Letters, theorists suggest similar states should also exist between dipolar molecules."

Friday, June 10, 2011

The bent pyramid

Google Maps is an excellent service for archaeological survey. Let us look at the Bent Pyramid in Egypt.


After a processing by means of AstroFracTool and GIMP, we have


Or using the wavelets of Iris


Interesting for mapping sites! In my opinion, there are many other structures in these images which are connected to the pyramid (for instance, the one that seems a pool near the upper left corner), besides those listed in the following map.
This map is adapted from: 

A new type of supernova

"A new type of supernova that shines up to 10 times brighter than any previously recorded has been discovered by an international team of astronomers. However, the team has yet to explain the exact mechanism that drives this new type of exploding star, with existing models failing to reproduce the radiation emanating from this new class of violent events."
New type of supernova outshines the rest - physicsworld.com

Vídeo: espectacular explosión solar

Una espectacular erupción solar fue captada por la NASA. Aunque sólo es de impacto medio, las imágenes de la eyección de masa coronal son impresionantes.
Vídeo: espectacular explosión solar

Wednesday, June 8, 2011

Automated factories in space


"Future space equipment could one day be built in off-planet automated factories, following a new programme by UK firm Magna Parva.
The Technology Strategy Board-funded scheme will develop the idea of off-planet manufacturing for technology such as solar sails and antenna reflectors, which could cut the costs and complexity of such structures.
If this equipment were manufactured in space it could be made thinner, lighter and with fewer parts because it would not have to withstand the force of Earth’s gravity or fold compactly into a launch vehicle."

Tuesday, June 7, 2011

The cradle of Egyptian pyramids

The cradle of pyramids in satellite images,  by Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy
http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.0818

We propose the use of image processing to enhance the Google Maps of some archaeological areas of Egypt. In particular we analyse that place which is considered the cradle of pyramids, where it was announced the discovery of a new pyramid by means of an infrared remote sensing.

Saqqara and Dahshur are burial places of the ancient Egypt. Saqqara was the necropolis of Memphis, the ancient capital of the Lower Egypt. This place has many pyramids, including the well-known step pyramid of Djoser, and several mastabas. As told in Wikipedia, 16 Egyptian kings built pyramids there and the high officials added their tombs during the entire pharaonic period [1]. The necropolis remained an important complex for non-royal burials and cult ceremonies till the Roman times. Dahshur is another royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile [2]. The place is well-known for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest and best preserved in Egypt. Therefore this site can be properly considered as the cradle of Egyptian pyramids [3]. Figure 1 shows the Djoser pyramid and the Great Enclosure at Saqqara. The two images have been obtained from Google Maps after an image processing with two programs, AstroFracTool, based on the calculus of the fractional gradient, and the wavelet filtering of Iris, as discussed in Ref.4. The reader can compare the images with the original Google Maps, using the coordinates given in the figure [5].
Recently the BBC announced the discovery in the area between Saqqara and Dashur, near the river Nile, of a new pyramid buried in the sand [6]. The pyramid has been observed by means of the infrared remote sensing. According to the images in Ref.7, it is located near the pyramid of Khendjer, discovered by Gustave Jequier in 1929, built as the tomb of king Khendjer, who ruled Egypt during the 13th Dynasty [8]. The pyramid currently lies in ruins, in part damaged during the excavations done by Jequier, and it is rising just one meter above the desert sand. The pyramid complex was enclosed by inner and outer walls. The inner wall was made of limestone, the outer wall was made of mud bricks. According to Wikipedia, the pyramid stood at about 37.35 meters high [8].
It is interesting to observe the structure of this pyramid from the space with Google Maps. After a processing by means of AstroFracTool and Gimp [4], we obtained the lower panel in Fig.2. According to Ref.[8], the ruins are rising only a few meters above the grounds; the Google Maps, however, after a suitable processing are displaying all the details of the Khendjer complex.
As BBC announced, Sarah Parcak, of the University of Alabama, used some data from NASA infrared equipped satellites to survey the Egypt. Waiting for a more detailed report on her researches and on the methods the team used, let us observe the images that some Web sites are publishing, in particular that of the Khendjer complex (for the author it is impossible to tell whether the images are the original infrared ones or not). According to [7], it is in this complex that there is one of the discovered pyramids. The site is shown in Fig.3, where the upper panel is displaying as it appears in Google Maps, and the lower panel shows it after processing by means of AstroFracTool. It seems a ghost image having the same features of the complex outlines in Fig.2.
According to the Egypt's Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, Zahi Hawass, the new technologies are able to locate the remains beneath the sand [9], but it is necessary to identify them with archaeological researches on the spot. Of course, a research on the area will be able to tell the name of the king buried in the site.
As discussed in Ref.10, there are several remote sensing techniques that can be useful in archaeology. For what concerns the Google Maps, let me remark its use in the study of the Merowe Dam and the paleochannels of the Nile where we compared the images from SIR-C/X-SAR imaging radar system, with those from Google [11].
It is my opinion that the image processing of Google Maps can be used for an archaeological survey of Egypt (see for instance, some examples on the satellite images of Amarna, [11]), besides of course, all the satellite methods used for geophysical researches. For what concerns the proposed processing of Google Maps, it is important to note the following fact: it is during the processing activity, when the user is changing parameters and details appear in the picture, that it is easier to recognize them. The information is already in the image: it is only enough to take it out.

References
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saqqara
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dahshur
3. From A to Z, Dahshur, http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html
4. Enhancing the Google imagery using a wavelet filter, A.C. Sparavigna, http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.1590
5. See images at the site https://sites.google.com/site/saqqaradahshursatellite/
6. Egyptian pyramids found by infra-red satellite images, F. Cronin, BBC New, 24 May 2011,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-13522957
7. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1390667/Seventeen-lost-pyramids-thousands-buried-Egyptian-settlements-pinpointed-infrared-satellite-images.html?ito=feeds-newsxml, and also http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/9202577-egyptian-pyramids-found-by-infrared-satellite-images
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Khendjer
9. News broadcast by BBC is inaccurate, says Hawass, N. El-Aref, Ahramonline, 26 May 2011, http://english.ahram.org.eg/
10. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt, A.C. Sparavigna, http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.6315
11. The Merowe Dam on the Nile, A.C. Sparavigna, http://www.archaeogate.org/, and, Merowe Dam and the inundation of paleochannels of the Nile, A.C. Sparavigna, http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1011.4911
12. Some image processing on Amarna,
https://sites.google.com/site/amarnasatelliteimagery/


 Fig.1: The Djoser pyramid and the Great Enclosure at Saqqara, Egypt. The images have been obtained from Google Maps after a processing by means of AstroFracTool and Gimp, in the upper panel, and Iris wavelets, in the lower panel. For a discussion of the processing see Ref.4. The figure is giving the coordinates for a comparison with the original Google Maps’ image [5].

 Fig.2 The Khendjer complex as seen from the space, with Google Maps. After a processing by means of AstroFracTool and Gimp [4], we have the lower panel. According to Ref.[8], the ruins are rising only a few meters above the grounds; Google Maps, however, after a suitable processing are displaying all the details.


Fig.3. According to [7], it is in the Khendjer complex that there is one of the discovered pyramids. The upper panel is showing as it appears in Google Maps, the lower panel shows it after processing by means of AstroFracTool. It seems a ghost image having the same features of the complex outlines in Fig.2.

Monday, June 6, 2011

Cool microscope feels the heat

"Physicists in Germany have invented a new kind of microscope that uses a gas of extremely cold atoms to map the surface of nanoscale structures. The researchers say that their device is complimentary to atomic-force microscopes (AFMs) and that they ultimately hope to create a probe with precision that is limited only by fundamental quantum uncertainties."
Cool microscope feels the heat - physicsworld.com

Wednesday, June 1, 2011

The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt
by Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

A recent announcement from BBC of 17 new pyramids discovered in Egypt arouses the interest on the archaeology aided by satellites imagery [1]. These pyramids, as many other ancient remains in Egypt, are under the sand of the desert. They were discovered by means of a remote sensing with infrared sensors. In fact, the archaeological surveys, usually performed by means of airplanes, are necessary to observing the sites from above and gain a better view of the landforms. In some cases, the survey of a region ends with the discovery of new archaeological sites or with the precise location of an ancient lost town [2].
Satellites give different opportunities, according to their sensorial equipment. BBC announced that Sarah Parcak, of the University of Alabama, used some data from NASA infrared equipped satellites to survey the Egypt. Waiting for a more detailed report on her researches and on the methods the team used, we can just tell that the infrared inspection is based on collecting the radiances in various wavelength bands, in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The resulting profiles depend on the methods used to obtain the surface data from radiances. To have a good detection, the surface must be free from clouds.
The Egypt's Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, Zahi Hawass, seems to be quite interested to the new technologies, but, as he told Ahram Online, the satellite infrared images are only able to locate the remains beneath the sand [3]. It is then necessary, according to Hawass, to identify them with archaeological researches on the spot. From the news on the Web it is not clear how many sites have been analyzed by the team of the University of Alabama. It seems that the amount of data collected by the researchers is huge.
Besides the analysis with infrared imagery, let us consider that there are other remote sensing techniques that can be useful in archaeology: among them we have the LIDAR system, which is, as we discussed in [4], able to see under the canopy of the forests, and the SIR-C/X-SAR imaging radar system, which has waves that can penetrate the clouds, and, under certain conditions, vegetation, ice and dry sand [5]. Of course, these facilities are not freely available and needs financial supports.
We could then ask ourselves if a free satellite service, such as Google Maps, can help in some archaeological researches in Egypt. It is my opinion that the answer is positive. In studying the Merowe Dam and the paleochannels of the Nile we could compare the images from SIR-C/X-SAR imaging radar system, with those of the Google Maps [6]. After a suitable image processing with some freely downloadable programs (GIMP, IRIS, AstroFracTool,[7]), the Google Maps revealed astonishing details of the network of old buried channels of Nile in the Nubian region. The same for the "raised fields" near the Titicaca Lake in Peru: the processing of the images clearly displayed the network of these ancient earthworks and canals [8]. Many of these structures are probably buries under some sediments of the lake.
Let us then try to apply the image processing to the Google Maps of those areas in Egypt, where according to the press, the infrared satellite imagery is giving good results. We see that one of these investigated areas is that of Tanis, a town of the ancient Egypt. In Fig.1, it is shown what we can have after processing the image from Google Maps. The upper part of the figure is obtained using the GIMP image- processing program, to adjust brightness and contrast. The lower part is gained after a processing with the wavelet filtering of Iris. These images seem to contain quite clear information on the buried town too.
Another example is the site where there are buried pyramids, according to the press [9,10]. The site is at Saqqara: Figure 2 shows the area as can be seen after a processing of Google Maps. The reader is invited to compare these images with those published on the Web, copyrighted BBC. I guess that after comparison, the reader can draw some positive conclusions about Google Maps and its use for an archaeological survey of Egypt. I am proposing another example of the use of image processing in Fig.3. This is the Great Temple at Amarna, buried under the sand (more images at [11]).
As Zahi Hawass is telling, it is necessary to understand whether some “anomalies” revealed by the satellite remote sensing are archaeological remains or not. This means that archaeology can only receive benefits for geophysics researches and the related use of remote sensing.

References.
1. Egyptian pyramids found by infra-red satellite images, F. Cronin, BBC New, 24 May 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-13522957
2. Documentation of the Abandoned Town La Ciudad Perdida in Peru Combining VHR Satellite Data and Terrestrial Measurement, K. Pavelka, M. Bukovinsky, J. Svatuskova, Remote Sensing for Science, Education and Natural and Cultural Heritage,  Rainer Reuter Ed., EARSeL, 2010.
3. News broadcast by BBC is inaccurate, says Hawass, N. El-Aref, Ahramonline, 26 May 2011, http://english.ahram.org.eg/
4. Lines under the forest, A.C. Sparavigna, http://www.archaeogate.org/, and http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.5277.
5. SIR-C X-SAR Earth-Imaging Radar for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, Infopage.
6. The Merowe Dam on the Nile, A.C. Sparavigna, http://www.archaeogate.org/, and, Merowe Dam and the inundation of paleochannels of the Nile, A.C. Sparavigna, http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1011.4911.
7. Enhancing the Google imagery using a wavelet filter, A.C. Sparavigna, http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.1590.
8. The geoglyphs of Titicaca, A.C. Sparavigna, http://www.archaeogate.org/ and Symbolic landforms created by ancient earthworks near Lake Titicaca, A.C. Sparavigna, http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.2231.
9. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1390667/Seventeen-lost-pyramids-thousands-buried-Egyptian-settlements-pinpointed-infrared-satellite-images.html?ito=feeds-newsxml, and also
http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/9202577-egyptian-pyramids-found-by-infrared-satellite-images
10. In my opinion, the published images at [9] are not the real infrared images of the Alabama University team, but this is what is published on the web.
11. Some image processing on Amarna, https://sites.google.com/site/amarnasatelliteimagery/



Fig.1: Tanis as can be observed after processing an image from Google Maps. In the upper part, brightness and contrast had been adjusted with GIMP. The lower image was obtained with a wavelet filtering with Iris. It seems that the image is giving quite good details too.



Fig.2. This is the Saqqara area where there is a buried pyramid. The image has been obtained after processing a Google Maps image. According to Refs.[9], in this area there one of the buried pyramid announced by BBC [1].



Fig.3: The Great Temple in Amarna, as can be seen after processing a Google Maps image.

Amarna

The following images are showing a great temple in Amarna, the city of Akhetaten.
The images have been obtained applying an image processing to Google Maps. 




The image processing is done by means of  GIMPIRIS and AstroFracTool.

Tanis - a detail


A detail of Tanis (from Google Maps, after processing).
For more details see

El Inca

"El Inca, Garcilaso de la Vega (April 12, 1539–1616), born Gómez Suárez de Figueroa, was a historian and writer from the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. The son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca noblewoman, he is recognized primarily for his contributions to Inca history, culture, and society. Although not all scholars agree, many consider Garcilaso's accounts the most complete and accurate available. Because there was also a Spanish author named Garcilaso de la Vega, he is more commonly known as "El Inca" Garcilaso de la Vega, or simply "El Inca Garcilaso"."

La cultura Andina y el Sumaq Kawsay

Interessante discussione su ConNuestroPeru

Es la cultura Andina y el Sumaq Kawsay… ¿Cuna de la utopía real* y del pensamiento utópico europeo?