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Benvenuti in queste pagine dedicate a scienza ed arte. Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

Saturday, April 19, 2014

Robert Grosseteste, De Luce, On Light

Robert Grosseteste's Thought on Light and Form of the World
A.C. Sparavigna
THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
2014, Volume: 3, Numero: 4, Pagine: pp. 54-62
ISSN: 2305-3925
Abstract: Robert Grosseteste was one of the most prominent thinkers of the Thirteenth Century. Philosopher and scientist, he proposed a metaphysics based on the propagation of light. In this framework, he gave a cosmology too. Here we will discuss the treatise where Grosseteste proposed it, that entitled 'De luce, seu de incohatione formarum', 'On Light and the Beginning of Forms'
Parole chiave: medieval science, cosmogony, history of physics, history of science, robert grosseteste, big bang, cosmology
http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/article/486

Wednesday, April 9, 2014

Robert Grosseteste and his Big Bang

"From Rome to the Antipodes: The Medieval Form of the World," International Journal of Literature and Arts. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2013, pp. 16-25. doi:10.11648/j.ijla.20130102.11

9. Grosseteste and the Sphere of Light
Robert Grosseteste (1175-1253) was an English philosopher who became the Bishop of Lincoln. As a scientist he had a quite important role in the medieval school of Oxford [32]. In his works, in particular in the commentaries of Aristotle’s philosophy, Grosseteste devised a scientific method. From particular observations, we can find a universal law, and then, from these laws we can predict some peculiar cases. Grosseteste called this “resolution and composition” [33]. As a consequence, Grosseteste tells that physics needs the ‘experimentum’, that is, a proof from experience. These ideas were a prelude for the Galilean science in the 17th century [34]. The method of “resolution and composition” was applied to geometry and optics. Moreover, optics is described by geometry, because optics depends on geometry. As a conclusion, Grosseteste argued that mathematics was the highest science, basis for all others. Here we see that he understood the necessity to describe the physical phenomena in a mathematic formalism. Grosseteste believed that at the beginning of times, it wasthe light to move the universe. In his “De Luce”, Grosseteste explains the origin of the world. God created matter and light together in a point. Due to its nature the light propagated isotropically in all directions. It immediately became a sphere and, accordingly, dragged by the light, the matter started to expand. The creation is then explained by means of a sphere of light [35].
Grosseteste's work in optics was continued by Roger Bacon. There is also an interesting quotation often reported in the history of telescope. In his treatise entitled “De Iride”, Grosseteste writes that a part of optics, “when well understood, shows us how we may make things a very long distance off appear as if placed very close, and large near things appear very small, and how we may make small things placed at a distance appear any size we want, so that it may be possible for us to read the smallest letters at incredible distances, or to count sand, or seed, or any sort of minute objects.” It is probable that Grosseteste made some experiments using lenses and mirrors [36,37].
[32] N. Lewis, Robert Grosseteste, in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2010, E.N. Zalta ed.
[33] H.G. Gauch, Jr., Scientific Method in Practice, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p.222.
[34] W. A. Wallace, Prelude to Galileo: Essays on Medieval and Sixteenth-Century Sources of Galileo's Thought, Springer, 1981.
[35] F. Adorno, T. Gregory and V. Verra, Storia della Filosofia, Bari: Laterza, 1973.
[36] A.C. Sparavigna, "Translation and discussion of the De Iride, a treatise on optics by Robert Grosseteste," arXiv, 2012, History and Philosophy of Physics, arxiv:1211.5961.
[37] A.C. Sparavigna, "Reflection and refraction in Robert Grosseteste's De Lineis, Angulis et Figuris," arXiv, 2013, History and Philosophy of Physics, arxiv:1302.1885.

A translation of Grosseteste's treatise on Big Bang at
A.C. Sparavigna (2014) , Robert Grosseteste's Thought on Light and Form of the World. In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, vol. 3 n. 4, pp. 54-62. - ISSN 2305-3925
 at http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/article/486

I have translated and discussed some Grosseteste's treatises, you can find th links to download them freely at
http://physics-sparavigna.blogspot.it/2014/04/robert-grosseteste_8.html

Grossatesta ed il Big Bang

Roberto Grossatesta è il filosofo medievale che si è posto il problema dell'origine del mondo, un modo ancora tolemaico con al suo centro la Terra. Come dice la Genesi "e la luce fu". La luce nella sua espansione sferica porta con se la materia e crea il mondo.

Dalla pagina sul "Ilemorfismo universale"
http://www3.unisi.it/ricerca/prog/fil-med-online/temi/htm/ilemorfismo.htm
La cosmologia: Roberto Grossatesta. All’interno di una visione cosmologica, anche Roberto Grossatesta, capofila della tradizione francescana a Oxford, pone i rapporti tra forma e materia nei termini di una intrinseca unione. Accogliendo pienamente alcuni aspetti della speculazione scientifica araba, egli parla della luce come “prima forma della corporeità”. Oggetto della creazione divina, la luce sintetizza la forma e la materia nella loro esistenza primordiale. Assolutamente semplice e priva di dimensionalità, essa produce la materia estesa moltiplicandosi infinitamente. Grossatesta affida dunque alla luce l’esistenza di una materialità sottile, di per sé e sin dall’origine dotata di forma. La naturale e necessaria autopropagazione della luce gli consente, inoltre, di spiegarne il dinamismo intrinseco, da cui nasce l’intero cosmo: che raccoglie la luce originaria come lumen nel mondo astrale e come virtus in quello elementare, senza perdere il suo carattere unitario dato dall’unica forma corporea da cui è provenuto.


Dal CORSO DI STORIA DELLA FILOSOFIA PER I LICEI E PER GLI ADULTI CHE DESIDERANO CONOSCERLA: DALLA FILOSOFIA ANTICA A QUELLA CONTEMPORANEA, s cura di Francesco Lorenzoni, 2012, V.1, FILOSOFIA ANTICA E MEDIEVALE
"Ad Oxford Roberto Grossatesta, francescano, nato nel 1175, compie studi di specifica natura scientifica ed empirica sulle proprietà degli specchi e sulle lenti, benché all'interno di una "cosmologia della luce" (la prima realtà creata è la luce e le nove sfere celesti, mentre i quattro elementi terrestri si formano attraverso processi di diffusione, aggregazione e disgregazione della luce). Ma soprattutto egli esprime un principio che sarà a fondamento del pensiero di Galileo e della fisica moderna, vale a dire il principio dell'utilità dello studio delle linee, degli angoli e delle figure geometriche, poiché senza di esso non si può conoscere niente della filosofia naturale."

La teoria della luce di Roberto Grossatesta



estratto "Da Democrito ai quark, le grandi intuizioni della Fisica"
volume realizzato per il LXXXVII Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Fisica

Tuesday, April 8, 2014

Robert Grosseteste

1.Articolo di rivistaA.C. Sparavigna (2014)
De Calore Solis, a Treatise on Heat by Robert Grosseteste. In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, vol. 3 n. 1, pp. 27-31. - ISSN 2305-3925 
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2.Articolo di rivistaA.C. Sparavigna (2014)
Robert Grosseteste and the Colours. In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, vol. 3 n. 1, pp. 1-6. - ISSN 2305-3925 
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3.Articolo di rivistaA.C. Sparavigna (2013)
From Rome to the Antipodes: The Medieval Form of the World. In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LITERATURE AND ART, vol. 1 n. 2, pp. 16-25. 
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4.LibroA.C. Sparavigna (2013)
Gabrio Piola e il suo Elogio di Bonaventura Cavalieri. Lulu Press, Inc, Raleigh, North Carolina , pp. 1-79. ISBN 9781291298567 
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5.Articolo di rivistaA.C. Sparavigna (2013)
The Generation of Sounds According to Robert Grosseteste. In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, vol. 2 n. 10, pp. 1-5. - ISSN 2305-3925 
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6.Articolo di rivistaA.C. Sparavigna (2013)
On the Rainbow, a Robert Grosseteste's Treatise on Optics. In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, vol. 2 n. 9, pp. 108-113. - ISSN 2305-3925 
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7.AltroA.C. Sparavigna (2013)
Reflection and refraction in Robert Grosseteste's De Lineis, Angulis et Figuris. arXiv.org, Cornell University Library, Ithaca NY. 
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8.Articolo di rivistaA.C. Sparavigna (2013)
Robert Grosseteste and his Treatise on Lines, Angles and Figures of the Propagation of Light. In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, vol. 2 n. 9, pp. 101-107. - ISSN 2305-3925 
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9.Articolo di rivistaA.C. Sparavigna (2013)
Robert Grosseteste and the Four Elements. In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, vol. 2 n. 12, pp. 42-45. - ISSN 2305-3925 
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10.AltroA.C. Sparavigna (2013)
Robert Grosseteste: the geometry to solve the complexity of the world. Scribd, San Francisco. 
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11.AltroSparavigna A.C. (2012)
Discussion of the De Generatione Sonorum, a treatise on sound and phonetics by Robert Grosseteste. Scribd, San Francisco, California. 
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12.AltroA.C. Sparavigna (2012)
From Rome to the Antipodes: the medieval form of the world. arXiv.org, Cornell UniversityLibrary. 
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13.AltroSparavigna A.C. (2012)
Robert Grosseteste's colours. arXiv.org, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY. 
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14.AltroSparavigna A.C. (2012)
Sound and motion in the De Generatione Sonorum, a treatise by Robert Grosseteste. arXiv, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY. 
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15.AltroSparavigna A.C. (2012)
Translation and discussion of the De Iride, a treatise on optics by Robert Grosseteste. arXiv, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY. 
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Saturday, March 22, 2014

The Pantheon as an astronomic instrument

Fiorenzo Laurelli (Twitter) published some interesting images on the sun in the Roman Pantheon.
In occasion of the Equinox he shows the light of the sun falling in this amazing temple. He is also providing an interesting reference of this subject: Il Pantheon come strumento astronomico, Fausto Masi, International EILES, 1996 .
Let us remember that the Pantheon is a building made of concrete. For more information on ancient concrete, see please my paper at the link http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/article/412




Saturday, February 1, 2014

stone circle - 2 - Jordan

Stone circles in Jordan.
Syrian desert.


Stone circle and desert kite

Stone circle and desert kite in Jordan

Stone circle - Jordan - 1


A stone circle in Jordan

About Jordan and the Syrian Desert, see also:

Desert kites - 1


The Syrian Desert is an arid land of south-western Asia, extending from the northern Arabian Peninsula to the eastern Jordan, southern Syria, and western Iraq, largely covered by lava fields. Considered in the past as a barrier between Levant and Mesopotamia, it is now crossed by several routes and pipelines. This desert possesses two volcanic regions. One is the Jabal al-Druze, in the As-Suwayda Governorate. The other field is that of the Harrat Ash Shaam.

When we observe this desert from space, we discover that this harsh environment was probably quite populated in ancient times. We can conclude this fact from some huge stone structures, the "desert kites", that can be easily seen in the images recorded by satellites. These structures were firstly observed by pilots of the Royal Air Force in the 1920s, flying over the desert. These pilots named them "kites", because these lines reminded of kites used by children to play, but in fact they are huge hunting traps.

We usually imagine our ancestors, before they settle down, as people simply hunting and gathering for food, but this is not true. The "desert kites" are the remains of an ancient hunting technique based on stone-walled traps, the construction of which surely involved several people for long times. The desert kites were used to push large herds of animals into some enclosures, or, in the worse case, to fall off from steep cliff edges. The simplest structure of a desert kite has a triangular shape, consisting of two long, low walls built of stones and arranged in a V-shape, like a  funnel, ending as a corral. Hunters pushed the game between the walls, trapping then the animals into the end of the structure. It is usually considered that animals were slaughtered “en masse”.

Typically, a desert kite possesses two, three or more small circular enclosures on the edge of its corral. Some ancient rock art images show these hunting traps, depicting the role of the 'walls' of the kites. Let us note that these walls are low and then not able to stop any game. In fact, the walls are not walls at all: they are the basements, in the rocky harraat, where stick some poles and build a fence with branches. These structures create a visual effect as a barrier for the animals.



"Kite" rock-drawing from Jordan,  G.L. Harding: The Cairn of Hani, Antiquity 28,1954:pp 165-7
(2007-02-22) In 1951, Harding discovered a burial cairn with Safaitic inscriptions. On one of the stones was scratched a hunting scane.The cairn is located in the heart of the 'Kite' area,there is no doubt that the drawing depicts a scane of the gazelles being hunted in such a' Kite'.

References
23 June 2011,  http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.4665 , http://arxiv.org/pdf/1106.4665v1.pdf
February 2009, Khaybar Desert Kites, Vanja Janežic
alsahra.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/khaybar-desert-kites.pdf
http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=2146412866

Friday, December 27, 2013

Trundholm Sun Chariot and Langstrup Plate

Read please this post, very interesting

Les dues vides del Carro Solar de Trundholm, Publicat per Albert
títol del TREBALL DE FINAL DE GRAU,  carrera d'Humanitats  a la UNIVERSITAT POMPEU FABRA.
at http://alauniversitat.blogspot.it/2013/11/les-dues-vides-del-carro-solar-de.html

And also http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/bronze-age-calendar-120330.htm




See also: http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.2512
Ancient bronze disks, decorations and calendars, Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
(12 Mar 2012) Recently, it was published that some ancient bronze disks could had been calendars, that is, that their decorations had this function. Here I am discussing an example, the disk of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, proposing a new interpretation of it, giving a calendar of 360 days. Some geometric diagrams concerning the decoration layout are also proposed. Comments: Ancient calendars, ancient time-keeping, Bronze Age, Trundholm Sun Chariot
Cite as: arXiv:1203.2512 [physics.pop-ph]

See also http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.4103
Number pi from the decoration of the Langstrup plate, Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
(19 Mar 2012), Studies of ancient bronze artifacts can be useful in understanding the progression of human knowledge of mathematics and geometry. Here I discuss the decoration composed by several circles and spirals of the Langstrup belt disk, an artifact of the Bronze Age found in Denmark. I am showing by measurements of diameters and distances of spirals, that the artist who made the decoration knew some approximations by rational numbers of the number pi, the dimensionless physical quantity representing the ratio of circumference to diameter. Comments: Ancient measurements of pi as ratio of circumference and diameters, giving rational numbers,
Cite as: arXiv:1203.4103 [physics.pop-ph]